Financial statements are a set of documents showing a company’s current financial status. They communicate what your business owns and what it owes at a fixed point in time and provide details about your assets, liabilities and equity. There are three statements that all businesses require for tax, financing and investing purposes.
The balance sheet is a snapshot of a company’s performance at a given time. It identifies the company’s assets (inventory, equipment, vehicles, furniture, property, cash), liabilities (short term debts, long term loans, accounts payable) and equity (what would be left if assets were sold and debts paid). The balance sheet is an indication of the health of a business and helps business owners make decisions regarding how much inventory to order, if assets should be sold and whether a cash infusion is called for. Lenders use a company’s balance sheet to evaluate collateral and risk.
The income statement, also known as a profit and loss statement, summarizes a company’s revenue and expenses for a given period of time. This report shows the company’s bottom line. The income statement consists of four sections; revenues (net sales), cost of goods sold (inventory, freight, labour, indirect expenses), expenses (wages, advertising, depreciation, payroll taxes, office expenses, utilities) and other income (assets sold, interests on loans/investments). The income statement is the document you show to potential lenders/investors and is necessary during tax season. It indicates the profitability of a business’ current operations and guides management in how to expand or cut operations for greater profits.
Cash flow statement:
The cash flow statement reports the cash and cash equivalents that flow into and out of a company in a given time period. It measures how much cash a company has on hand. Your income statement shows your company’s bottom line while the cash flow statement shows how your business earns cash and where it goes. The information in this report is used to project how much revenue can be expected in the future, estimate upcoming expenses and make judgments re revenue gaps that may result in non-payment of business liabilities and debts. There are three activities documented in a cash flow statement; operations (accounts receivable, accounts payable, wages, merchandise expenses), investments (equipment and merchandise purchased, purchase of an asset, loans made to vendors, payments related to a merger or acquisition) and financing (bank loans, shareholder monies, personal investments, dividend payments, loan repayments, sale of company stocks). This report informs management of how much cash is available to pay expenses and invest in the business. Large discrepancies between the cash flow statement and the income statement help identify problems in a business’s operations.
Financial statements are written records that convey a company’s activities and financial performance. The balance sheet provides an overview of assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity. The income statement focuses on a company’s revenues and expenses. The cash flow statement measures how a company generates cash to pay its debt obligations, fund its operating expenses, and fund investments. These three main financial statements are interrelated and help you make smart financial, investment and management decisions. All businesses should prepare these reports on a regular basis. Talk to your chartered accountant. They will have the knowledge, expertise and experience to provide you with the financial statements you require.
Need help with your company’s financial statements? Contact Cook and Company Chartered Professional Accountants. Whether you operate a sole proprietorship or a sizable corporation with multiple subsidiaries, Cook and Company uses their experience and expertise to help your business. Contact us for a complimentary consultation.